Annotated Bibliography Maker: How to Write the Best!

Last Updated: 18 October 2019
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Students are always faced with the challenge of writing an annotated bibliography. It is a chance they always leave with the annotated bibliography maker. When you do not understand how to write an annotated bibliography that is the best move you can make.


This article introduces college and university students on the nuggets of wisdom of writing an annotated bibliography. In the end, you will understand how to format an annotated bibliography. We also introduce you to the best-annotated bibliography structure.


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Read this article: A university-level annotated bibliography sample and advice.


What is an Annotated Bibliography?


An annotated bibliography refers to a list of or organized sources, more of a reference list. However, each of the elements of the list is followed by a paragraph that critically evaluates or describes the given source.


It is also called an annotated bib. It gives a brief account of the research available on a given topic.


The annotation is a concise and summary of the content of the source, the authors, and the relevance to the topic.


Depending on the assignment at hand, annotated bibliographies can be meant for reflection, summary, evaluation, or analysis of the source.


Mostly, annotated bibliographies culminate into a research paper, term paper, dissertation, thesis, or a literature review.


The Types of Annotated Bibliography


Classification wise, there are two types of annotated bibliographies.



  1. Informative or descriptive annotated bibliography.

  2. Critical or analytical annotated bibliography.


The descriptive annotated bibliography, as the name suggests, provides a summary or an outlook of the source. It does so like an abstract. In this type, always focus on the arguments of the author, the findings, and conclusions of the study.


The analytical or critical annotated bibliography critically analyzes the source. Its focus is usually the strengths and limitations of the study in question. They are also the ones where you describe the conclusion of the author and its place in your research.


If your professor does not specify the type of annotated bib, please find a balance between the two types. Having a common ground makes you be in a better position of getting the best grades.


Read this as well: Sample MLA Annotated Bibliography


Selecting the Sources for an Annotated Bibliography


As an annotated bibliography contains lists of references, it is imperative that an annotated bibliography maker chooses quality sources. For this reason, we insist that you avoid using annotated bibliography generators.  Instead, trust experienced academic essay writers to write your papers.


It is also important to define the scope and extent of your research. Ordinarily, this helps in setting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for each source.


In essence, your annotated bibliography should attempt to give the reasons why the sources are relevant to the current research area or paper.


Consider:



The Purpose of an Annotated Bibliography


Annotated bibliographies come in different instructions. The type, scope, and depth depend on the assignment and the subject.  Here are some reasons why an annotated bibliography is written:



An annotated bibliography should always cover the most recent sources. We always advise using sources within the last five years. Old sources can have confusing or outdated information.


If you are having a hard time writing an annotated bibliography, our professional essay writers can always help.


The contents of an Annotated Bib


When writing an annotated bibliography, it is important to consider the word limit set in the assignment rubric. However, each paragraph should be between 100-200 words. Here are some of the elements:



It is always important that when writing an annotated bibliography, you consider the formatting. Typically, an annotated bibliography can be in MLA, ASA, Harvard, or APA.


How to Write an Annotated Bibliography step by step


Writing an annotated bibliography need time, planning, and tactical execution. Here are the steps:



A good annotated bibliography denotes an excellent paper. Make yours great!


Sample Annotated Bibliography in APA


Annotated Bibliography: Issues LGBTQ Face In a School Setting


CBS News. (2013). California law allows transgender students to pick bathrooms, sports teams they identify with. Retrieved 16 February 2016, from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/california-law-allows-transgender-students-to-pick-bathrooms-sports-teams-they-identify-with/


Less than often, there are unopposed laws especially on matters touching on the rights of transgender students or individuals. According to the article, California became the first state to incorporate some rights for transgender students within its state law. The law mandates that the students’ administration allows transgender students access to restrooms and locker rooms of their preference. The AB1266 also allows transgender students to choose whether to participate in girls’ or boys’ sports according to Jerry Brown. Therefore, the law is a turning point that will ensure the participation of transgender students in sex-segregated activities, programs, and facilities. Ultimately, as praised by the supporters, the law would be a starting point in stopping discrimination and bullying against transgender students.


However, the opponents of the bill based their opposition on the premise that it will invade the privacy of other students. The article cites the expectation of mixed reactions from some parents. Despite being enshrined in state law, the opponents stressed that the original situation of the state law was sufficient to cushion transgender students. In essence, the law makes the students’ opinions prove that they have gender identity issues rather than the converse. It is expected that lawsuits will suffice in schools where parents feel the new legislation is violating the rights of their children. On the other hand, the law will protect students from harm.


Promises. (2015). Why Drug Abuse Is a Big Problem Among LGBT Teenagers. Retrieved 16 February 2016, from https://www.promises.com/articles/teens/why-drug-abuse-is-a-big-problem-among-lgbt-teenagers/           


LGBT teenagers often turn to drug and substance abuse for a plethora of reasons. Some of the primary reasons that cause the inclination towards drugs and substance abuse include omnipresent social expectations and norms, open discrimination, and internal conflict as well as confusion. The article is based on a meta-analysis from the University of Pittsburg in 2008, which found that 190% of the LGBT adolescents are more likely to use drugs compared to their heterosexual counterparts. On the other hand, 340% and 400% of bisexual and lesbian teenagers respectively, engage in drug and substance abuse. The primary cause of the abuse is the quest for sexual identity causing the youth to experiment with drugs as well as alcohol to feel comfortable and get away from the world. When the youths abuse drugs, they feel they have control over the issues they are facing. When faced with bullying, most of these students turn to drugs as the only consolation. Some of the challenges such as being underrepresented in pop culture also exacerbate the chances of drug and substance abuse. Drugs often take the LGBT adolescents away from loneliness, anxiety, fear of the unknown, and depression. The stress that these youths undergo predisposes them to the risk of developing mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety. Apparently, mental illness makes it easier for them to abuse substances as a way of self-medication, further complicating their recovery.


Kitts, R. (2005). Gay Adolescents and Suicide: Understanding the Association. Adolescence, 40(159), 621-628.


Despite being underemphasized, the rising rates of suicide among gay adolescent raises concerns in the domain of public health. The author draws ideas from previous related studies, experiences, and articles, unifying the ideas to create and open understanding of the susceptibility of gay adolescents to suicide. The author maintains that his core purpose is to emancipate physicians on their forgotten role of taking part in preventing suicide among gay teenagers. To ground his ideas, Kitts begins with an anecdote like the statement that presents a case where a youth has committed suicide and looks deeper the reason as to why the act could have happened. The statistics presented are disturbing; nearly one million adolescents attempt suicide annually. Furthermore, the author contends that an adolescent of the age bracket of 10 to 19 years commits suicide in every 90 minutes. The primary reason attributed to the problem is the lack of solutions to the problems of gay adolescents because people seldom discuss how they can deal with the stressors. According to Kitts, only 35% of the physicians do take and report the sexual history of their patients, the reason being an embarrassment and belief that it is irrelevant to the chief complaint. The author gives a couple of examples to elucidate that there is a stigma that is associated with being gay.


Consistent studies show that the rate of suicide among adolescents ranges between 20-40%. As a matter of fact, the author draws from a past study, the idea that teens who have same-sex orientation are twice as likely to commit suicide compared to their straight counterparts. The author goes on to simplify the link between being an adolescent and committing suicide, again drawing from a plethora of past studies. One of the causes of rising rates of suicide is the psychological distress that comes from being gay in society. Kitts presents some of the psychological stressors that might lead to a suicidal gay adolescent mind. The other factor is discrimination amidst the presence of laws that protect gays in society. He then recommends resources such as parents, family, and friends of LGBTQ and community centers where families and individuals can be referred to garner the support of the medical fraternity. Other factors that aggravate the rates include cultural intolerance, being left out in discussions and talks, and image disturbances causing eating disorders. The article is informative and gives a medical perspective on the issue of LGBT suicide.


Kosciw, J., Bartkiewicz, M., & Greytak, E. (2012). Promising Strategies for Prevention of the Bullying of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth. Prevention Researcher, 19(3), 10-13.


The authors collectively agree to the fact that LGBT youth has been left out in most of the media that focus on bullying. Accordingly, dependable results from some studies indicate that middle and high schools in the US are intolerable to LGBT youth. In such areas, the LGBT youth often experiences sexual harassment, discrimination and a couple of other adverse events depending on their sexual orientation, how they express themselves, and their gender identity. However, amidst all this fracas, the political landscape, as well as the educational arena, has seen some positive change that has shaped public opinion on gay and lesbian issues.


The authors also present trends that have taken place over time, noting that anti-gay remarks amount to biased comments that are a form of bullying used widely by other students. Most used homophobic remarks include “gay”, “fag”, or “dyke”. However, statistics are decreasing as they are only at 45.6% in 2009 compared to 65.3% usage of the terms in 1999. Most common of all forms of victimization include physical assault, physical harassment and verbal harassment, whose rates in schools are decreasing. The writers give rigor statistics drawn from reputable organizations, which they visualize using graphs for easy internalization. The authors are also considerate of other forms of bullying that take place outside the school environments that target around 13% of the gay youth population. One of the serious forms of bullying is cyberbullying. The authors then decipher the whole problem by delving in some of the strategies that can be used by the schools and parents to stop bullying. Some of the recommended resources by the authors include Gay-Straight Alliance clubs, anti-bullying policies in schools, affirmative teachings on LGBT, and the staff is supportive of LGBT. Relevant statistics are used to support the recommendations and implications of each of the above resources. The authors then come up with the implications their proposed strategies have for educators, parents and families, and youth service professionals. This article will inform my research and enable me to come up with strategies to prevent bullying in and outside the school.


Ludeke, M. (2009). Transgender Youth. Principal Magazine - | NAESP, (3), 12-16.


The essential message of the author is that transgender students, as well as those who question their identity, require a broad range of support and services. The writer starts off with a story that clearly brings out the stigma and the view of society on transgender students. Ludeke defines transgender as students whose self-identity is something else other than their birth sex. There are different stressors with relevance to the life of a transgender student. Authentically, the presentation of the transgender attributes by the students attracts ridicule, harassment, and violence. It is only through support and empathy of adult advocates that transgender students can comfortably change names, pronouns, appearance, and pursue medical services. The administrators have the mandate to ensure that there is a formal policy that enables the transgender students to choose names or pronouns they are comfortable with as well as gender-specific clothing. In case administrators lack legal information on policy formulation, they should seek the help of the national advocacy groups. The author proposes GAS (Gender-Straight Alliances) and online websites as material resources in supporting problems relating to sex, dating, and sexual identity. The culture and community also determine the manifestation of sexual identity. The author proposes internet sources as they combine the cultural language of transgender thus help in identifying information, history, and language. Transgender students often face frustration and confusion, making the students have shame and thus dysphoria, isolation, and distress in their development. Transgender also fear to lose their respect or families as well as friends and other people in their social space, making it hard to disclose their identity.


The author also explores the various roles of the administrators in intervening in the whole issue of transgender students. There is a discrepancy in the number of resources to support transgender students who face bullying and harassment compared to the students who are victims of racial and religious identities. The administrators can seek the help of school psychologists and health professionals to overcome their personal biases that can affect the support being given to transgender students. Overall, the administrators must ensure the safety and rights of transgender students. Secondly, the officials must also provide accommodation to ensure that transgendered students participate in school activities. Lastly, the administrators can also take the initiative in formulating policies that allow transgender students to choose pronouns and names they feel comfortable. Ludeke outlines various web resources that can be accessed by transgender students to enable them to have better lifestyles and support. There are also school and community support mechanisms that can mediate the issues facing transgender students. The article is very resourceful and has information pertinent to my research.


References


CBS News. (2013). California law allows transgender students to pick bathrooms, sports teams they identify with. Retrieved 16 February 2016, from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/california-law-allows-transgender-students-to-pick-bathrooms-sports-teams-they-identify-with/


Kitts, R. (2005). Gay Adolescents and Suicide: Understanding the Association. Adolescence, 40(159), 621-628.


Kosciw, J., Bartkiewicz, M., & Greytak, E. (2012). Promising Strategies for Prevention of the Bullying of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth. Prevention Researcher, 19(3), 10-13.


Ludeke, M. (2009). Transgender Youth. Principal Magazine - | NAESP, (3), 12-16.


Promises. (2015). Why Drug Abuse Is a Big Problem Among LGBT Teenagers. Retrieved 16 February 2016, from https://www.promises.com/articles/teens/why-drug-abuse-is-a-big-problem-among-lgbt-teenagers/


 


Sample MLA Annotated Bibliography


Here is an example of MLA annotated bibliography


GRIFFITHS, PHIL. "Towards White Australia: The shadow of Mill and the spectre of slavery in the 1880s debates on Chinese immigration." Unpublished paper, 11th biennial national conference of the Australian Historical Association. Vol. 4. 2002.


“In January 1888, in the middle of a growing Australian frenzy about Chinese migration, the British Secretary of State for the Colonies sent a stiffly-worded “please-explain” to the Australian authority demanding report delineation all “exceptional legislation affecting Chinese subjects” and the rationale for it. Possibly the most appealing and absolute reply came from Andrew Inglis Clark, Tasmania’s youthful Attorney-General, who disagreed that if considerable numbers of Chinese citizens should come to the settlement they would either pressure the “the primacy of the present governmental and executive powers that be”, “or, if they accepted an inferior social or political status, they …would create a combined political and industrial division of society upon the basis of a racial distinction. This would inevitably produce in the majority of the remainder of the population a degraded estimate of manual labour similar to that which has always existed in those communities where African slavery has been permitted, and thereby call into existence a class similar in habit and character to the “mean whites” of the Southern States of the American Union prior to the Civil conflict. A society so separated to produce particular vices in overstated magnitude and is doomed to sure decline.


Jayasuriya, Laksiri, David Walker, and Jan Gothard. "Legacies of White Australia: Race, culture and nation." Legacies of White Australia: race, culture, and nation (2003): xi.


The researchers express that the White Australia policy haunts Australia to date. They provide a debate on the issues of the nation, identity, and race that affect our attitudes on Australian-Asian engagement, multiculturalism, and immigration in the 21st century. They argue that the White Australia policy still haunts the Australian political scenery even after thirty years of being put to rest and more than a century after it first appeared in the Immigration Restriction Act 1901. In this volume leading Australian researchers critically revised a hundred years of White Australia to offer a foundational input to an informed discussion on the essential issues of race, identity, and nation that will determine our attitudes to immigration, multiculturalism and Australian-Asian engagement in the twenty-first century. In the new millennium, the Tampa incident and controversy surrounding asylum seekers have fuelled renewed speculation about the enduring legacies of White Australia. The article covers exclusionism and liberalism: a prehistory of the White Australia policy, the disciplining of White Australia and the race building. It further also deals with the history of White Australia to Fortress Australia with the anxious nation in the new century and the Australian religious culture from federation to the new pluralism. “


Kendall, Timothy David. Within China's Orbit?: China Through the Eyes of the Australian Parliament. Department of Parliamentary Services, 2008.


The researcher examined the place China has held in the parliamentary imagination even as the People‘s Republic of China continued in the development as the subject of intense cultural, political, and economic interest. The research achieved this by exploring the history of the Chinese with the Australian Parliament’s dealings. The monograph‘s period of historical focus is broad: it begins with an analysis of Federation debates over immigration restriction and concludes with a detailed assessment of the bilateral relationship during the 41st parliament. While the monograph provides extensive coverage of the changing nature of Australia–China relations, it does not attempt a full narrative history of the period with which it is concerned; rather, it offers an analysis of a series of foundational moments in the development of the relationship. Such a methodological approach enables the research to document the profound transformation that has taken place in Australian parliamentary attitudes towards China. The Chinese presence in the colonies of Australia during the 19th century provided one of the central motivations for the Federation and played a significant role in the development of an early Australian national identity. Antipathy towards the Chinese, fears about miscegenation, contamination, and anxiety about the degradation of the white type manifests itself in discriminatory legislation which included one of the first acts of the new Federal Parliament, the Immigration Restriction Act of 1901.”


Lewis, Wendy, Simon Balderstone, and John Bowman. Events that shaped Australia. New Holland Publishers, 2006.


The author suggests that there are many events that have shaken the nation and helped reshaped its identity: Australia switches on the television, governor Philip switches to Port Jackson from Botany Bay, The Anzacs land at Gallipoli, Goldrush excitement sets off the Eureka stockade, Holden cars roll off the production line, Football gets it own Aussie Rules, Federation creates a new nation, and Ned Kelly hangs in Melbourne. Each chapter is complete with historical and topical pictures. All the personalities that have shaped the country are here - from Alfred Deakin to Captain Cook and John Howard, Dame Nellie Melba and Don Bradman. Many of the events are the familiar stories of Wentworth, Blaxland, and Lawson, the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the first Holden. The book is written by journalists who have been present at many events as speechwriters, reporters or political aides. It also contains an insightful foreword by broadcaster and author Peter Luck. The Chinese Minister in London, Liu Jui-fen (Lew-ta-Jen), had complained to the British Foreign Office about laws discriminating against Chinese immigrants to the Australian colonies, and in particular to the imposition of a £10 poll tax (letter of 12 December 1887, Queensland State Archives, PRV7188-1-1). This complaint was then forwarded to the Colonial Office, which in turn wrote to each of the colonial governors, who in turn asked their ministers to draft a response.”


Windschuttle, K. (2004). The white Australia policy. Macleay Press.


“The history of Australia that the SBS documentary “Immigration Nation” overlooked. The introduction of the White Australia Policy was for cultural and economic reasons, and not primarily for racial prejudice reasons. A proper evaluation of its narration reveals there is no ghost of racial discrimination haunting the typical Australia culture. The agreement today among academic historians is that the White Australia Policy made the nation the moral comparable of South Africa when it was under apartheid.” Some historians tag Australia at Federation one of the ‘herrenvolk democracies’. Herrenvolk is German for ‘master race’ and historians who use the term, like Andrew Markus of Monash University, are making a direct compari­son with the racist nationalism of the Nazis. According to Richard White of the University of Sydney, the Australian national character predictable by both the outback pastoral worker and the sun-bronzed surf lifesaver ‘was uncomfortably close to Nazi ideas about the Aryan master race’. On the overall, the White Australia Policy was marred by aspects that were humane and discriminatory, progressive and reactionary. It is nothing to be particularly proud of, but nor is it anything before which we should wince or apologize for.


Power Words to Use in your Annotated Bibliography


When learning how to write an annotated bibliography, some specific vocabularies and strings can strengthen your writing.  These tips are from a trusted annotated bibliography maker. Here are some:



Useful Article: Sample Annotated Bibliography


Get Help with Your Annotated Bib Writing Requests


Our writers are experienced. They can give you annotated bibliography topics if you do not have one. Besides, if you want an annotated bibliography template, they are always willing to work on one for you. We will do a post for a sample APA bibliography.


Your answer on how an annotated bibliography should be is well covered. Undeniably, it should be between 100-200 words per annotation. If you are to write a critical annotated bibliography, always ensure it is critical.


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